CENTER FOR FINANCIAL STABILITY PAPER IN FINANCIAL HISTORY

  Who Was at Bretton Woods? July 1, 2014

By Kurt Schuler and Mark Bernkopf*
*Kurt Schuler (kschuler@the-cfs.org) is Senior Fellow in Financial History at the Center for Financial Stability.

Mark Bernkopf once worked at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. In 1996 he established the first general central banking resource Web site.
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Who Was at Bretton Woods?
By Kurt Schuler and Mark Bernkopf
We offer for the first time a nearly complete list of the people who attended the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire from July 1-22, 1944.
Keywords: Bretton Woods; International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD); International Monetary Fund (IMF); United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference; World Bank.
JEL codes: N40.
Copyright 2014 by Kurt Schuler and Mark Bernkopf. Reproduction is permitted provided that the source is acknowledged and no fee is charged.
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We offer for the first time a nearly complete list of the people who attended the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire from July 1-22, 1944. In The Bretton Woods Transcripts, Kurt Schuler and Andrew Rosenberg collated published conference documents to compile a list of conference delegates and the most important members of the conference secretariat, and offered some biographical details. Here we have used the unpublished conference telephone directories (Documents 20, 114, and 292 of the conference) and a published list of journalists (Document 64) to compile a list that includes the less visible attendees of the conference. In addition, we have included further though still brief biographical details on many attendees, including their years of birth and death where we could find them. Details come mainly from the unpublished Document 159 of the conference, the International Monetary Fund’s official history of the period, and Internet research of biographical articles and obituaries.1
Latin American family names sometimes include the mother’s family name. So, for Carlos Lleras Restrepo, a delegate from Colombia, Lleras was his father’s family name, not his middle name, and Restrepo was his mother’s family name. Adding the mother’s family name helps distinguish people whose names are otherwise common. Chinese names are listed as given name first, then family name, as is often done in English-speaking countries but not in China. Chinese names are apparently transliterated according to the old Wade-Giles system. No uniform method existed in 1944, or exists today, for transliterating Arabic names.
Some delegates are identified in the original documents as ministers resident or members of legations to the United States. A legation was a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. It is a minor inaccuracy to call the ministers “ambassadors,” as we denote them in parentheses, but it is more in accord with present usage, which no longer distinguishes between embassies and legations or between ambassadors and ministers resident.
We have divided attendees into five groups: members of delegations from participating countries, listed by country; members of observer delegations, listed by organization; conference secretariat, all apparently Americans; journalists; and others. We were unable to find full first names for some participants, especially women who attended as secretarial staff and were listed nowhere other than the conference telephone directories. We welcome additional details about conference attendees from knowledgeable readers, and will update the paper if we receive any. We have included a few delegates’ wives who were listed in the documents we consulted or have been mentioned in writings about Bretton Woods, but there may have been more not listed. Similarly, there were other people, particularly the staff of the Mount Washington Hotel, the location of the conference, who were present on site but were not part of the work of the conference and are likewise not listed.
1 Kurt Schuler and Andrew Rosenberg, editors, The Bretton Woods Transcripts, pp. 587-618 (New York: Center for Financial Stability, 2012 e-book, 2013 hardcover). For the unpublished documents mentioned, see the Center for Financial Stability Web site, http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/brettonwoods_docs.php. For the published Document 64, see Proceedings and Documents of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 1-22, 1944, v. 2, pp. 1245-1248 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office), http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/docs/publications/books/1948_state_bwood_v2.pdf, viewed May 28, 2014. The IMF’s official history is J. Keith Horsefield, The International Monetary Fund 1945-1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation; Volume I: Chronicle (Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 1969), pp. 620-640, 649-654. The World Bank’s official history is shorter and provides much less biographical information: Edward S. Mason and Robert E. Asher, The World Bank Since Bretton Woods (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1973).
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Delegations
AUSTRALIA
Chairman: Leslie Galfreid Melville (1902-2002), Economic Adviser to the Commonwealth Bank of Australia; later Executive Director, IMF (1950-1953); Executive Director, World Bank (1950-1953); Alternate Governor, IMF (1951-1952)
Other delegates
James Bristock “Jim” Brigden (1887-1950), Financial Counselor, Australian Legation, Washington; economist noted for contributions to trade, national income, and statistics in Australia
Frederick Henry Wheeler (1914-1994), Commonwealth Department of the Treasury; later Secretary (top career official), Commonwealth Department of the Treasury (1971-1979); knighted
Arthur Harold Tange (1914-2001), Commonwealth Department of External Affairs; later Secretary (top career official), Commonwealth Department of Defense (1970-1979); knighted
Secretary: Morris A. Greene, Australian Legation, Washington
Additional staff: Edythe Parker
BELGIUM
Chairman: Camille Gutt (1884-1971), Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs; previously chief of staff to Prime Minister Georges Theunis (1921-1924); later architect of post-liberation currency stabilization in Belgium (1944); Governor, IMF (1946); Executive Director, IMF (1946); first Managing Director, IMF (1946-1951)
Other delegates
Georges Émile Léonard Theunis (1873-1966), Minister of State (ambassador-at-large to the United States) and Governor of the National Bank of Belgium (1941-1944); previously Minister of Finance (1920-1921); Prime Minister (1921-1925, 1934-1935); Minister of Defense (1932)
Baron Hervé de Gruben (1894-1967), Counselor, Belgium Embassy, Washington (1937-1945); later Secretary General (top career official), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1945-1953); Alternate Governor, IMF (1946); Ambassador to West Germany (1953-1959)
Baron René Boël (1899-1990), Counselor of the Belgium Government; prominent banker and industrialist; later delegate to first meeting of IMF and World Bank (1946); President, European League for Economic Cooperation
Legal Adviser: Joseph Nisot, Legal Adviser, Belgian Embassy, New York; later a Belgian ambassador
Financial Adviser: Boris Serge “Ben” Chlepner (1890-1964), Professor, Free University of Brussels; monetary economist and economic historian of Belgium
Secretary: Ernest de Selliers de Moranville (1911-1964), Financial Attaché, Belgian Embassy, Washington; previously Chief of Staff, Ministry of Finance (1941-1944); later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946-1948); Executive Director, IMF (1948-1954); Alternate Executive Director, World Bank (1950-1953)
Additional staff
Francine Decq
Madeleine Leibkind
Helene Van Gelder
Ann Yurow
BOLIVIA
Chairman: René Ballivián Calderón (?-1979), Financial Counselor, Bolivian Embassy, Washington; later President, Banco Industrial de Bolivia
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BRAZIL
Chairman: Artur (English “Arthur”) de Souza Costa (1893-1957), Minister of Finance; adviser to President Getúlio Vargas
Other delegates
Francisco Alves dos Santos Filho, Director of Foreign Exchange, Banco do Brasil; later Executive Director, IMF (1946-1948); Governor, IMF (1946-1950); Governor, World Bank (1946-1950)
Valentim Fernandes Bouças (1891-1964), Commission of Control of the Washington Agreements and Member, Economic and Financial Council; wealthy businessman; sometime financial adviser to the President of Brazil
Eugênio Gudin (1886-1986), Economic and Financial Council and Economic Planning Committee; later Governor, World Bank (1950-1951, 1955-1956); Minister of Finance (1954-1955)
Octávio Gouvea de Bulhões (1906-1990), Chief, Division of Economic and Financial Studies, Ministry of Finance; later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946-1947); Minister of Finance (1964-1967)
Victor Azevedo Bastian, Director, Banco da Provincia do Rio Grande do Sul
Secretaries
Roberto de Oliveira Campos (1917-2001), Second Secretary, Brazilian Embassy, Washington; later Ambassador to the United States (1961-1964); Minister of Planning and Economic Coordination (1964-1967); Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1975-1982); member, Chamber of Deputies (legislature) (1991-1998)
Aguinaldo Boulitreau Fragoso, Assistant to the Minister of Foreign Affairs; later Minister of Foreign Affairs
Zeuxis Ferreira Neves, Technical Assistant to the Commercial Counselor, Brazilian Embassy, Washington
Charles Freligh, Brazilian Embassy, Washington
Santiago Fernandes, Banco do Brasil (state-owned quasi-central bank)
R. R. Vieira, Brazilian Treasury Delegation, New York
Daniel Maximo Martins, Private Secretary to the Minister of Finance
CANADA
Chairman: James Lorimer Ilsley (1894-1967), Minister of Finance and Receiver General (1940-1946); Member of Parliament (1926-1948); previously Minister of National Revenue (1935-1940); later Governor, IMF (1946); Governor, World Bank (1946); Minister of Justice and Attorney General (1946-1948); Chief Justice of Nova Scotia (1950-1967)
Other delegates
Louis Stephen St. Laurent (1882-1973), Minister of Justice (1941-1946, 1948); later Secretary of State for External Affairs (foreign minister) (1945-1948); Prime Minister (1948-1957)
Douglas Charles Abbott (1899-1987), Member of Parliament and Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of Finance; later Governor, World Bank (1946-1954); Minister of Finance (1946-1954); Justice, Supreme Court of Canada (1954-1973)
Lionel Chevrier (1903-1987), Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of Munitions and Supply; later Minister of Transport (1945-1954); Minister of Justice and Attorney General (1963-1964); High Commissioner to the United Kingdom (1964-1967)
Joseph-Adéodat Blanchette (1893-1968), Member of Parliament
Walter Adam Tucker (1899-1990), Member of Parliament (1935-1948)
William Clifford “Clif” Clark (1889-1952), Deputy Minister of Finance (1932-1952); later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946)
Graham Ford Towers (1897-1975), Governor, Bank of Canada (1934-1954); later Alternate Governor, IMF (1946-1950, 1953-1954); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1947)
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William Archibald Mackintosh (1895-1970), Special Assistant to the Deputy Minister of Finance; later Director, Bank of Canada
Louis Rasminsky (1908-1998), Chairman (alternate), Foreign Exchange Control Board; later Executive Director, IMF (1946-1962); Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1962); Alternate Governor, IMF (1950, 1955, 1958, 1960-1968); Deputy Governor, Bank of Canada (1955-1961); Governor, Bank of Canada (1961-1973)
(Arthur FitzWalter) Wynne Plumptre (1907-1977), Financial Attaché, Canadian Embassy, Washington; later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1953-1965); Assistant Deputy Minister, Department of Finance (1953-1965); Executive Director, IMF (1962-1965)
John James Deutsch (1911-1976), Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State of External Affairs; later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1952-1953); senior official in multiple positions, including Chairman, Economic Council of Canada (1963-1967)
Secretary: Paul Tremblay, Third Secretary, Canadian Embassy, Washington
Additional staff
Eric G. Adams
Beatrice Eynon
Sidney Turk
Betty Unger
CHILE
Chairman: Luis Álamos Barros (1893-1960), Director, Central Bank of Chile; previously Ambassador to Mexico (1940); later Minister of Interior (1945); Minister of Finance (1946)
Other delegates
Germán E. Riesco, General Representative of the Chilean Line, New York
Arturo Maschke Tornero (1902-2001), General Manager, Central Bank of Chile; later President, Central Bank of Chile (1953-1959); Minister of Finance (1946, 1950); Ambassador to Germany (1959-1965)
Fernando Mardones Restat (1905-1995), Assistant General Manager, Chilean Nitrate and Iodine Sales Corporation
Alfonso Fernández Martorell (1905-?), General Manager, Amortization Bank of Chile
Secretary: Carmen Señoret, Consul of Chile, Boston
Assistant Secretaries
Frank Ledesma, Secretary to the Chairman of the Delegation
Hermann Max Coers (1893-1974), Technical Adviser, Central Bank of Chile; Professor, University of Chile
Luis Aguirre
CHINA
Chairman: Hsiang-Hsi “H.H.” “Daddy” K’ung (1881-1967), Vice President of Executive Yuan (1935-1945); Governor, Central Bank of China (1933-1945); previously Minister of Finance (ca. 1937); Premier (1938-1939)
Other delegates
Tingfu Fuller Tsiang (1895-1965), Chief Political Secretary of Executive Yuan; previously Ambassador to the USSR (1936-1938); later Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations2 and Ambassador to the United States
Ping-Wen Kuo (1880-1969), Vice Minister of Finance
Victor Chi-Tsai Hoo (1894-1972), Administrative Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs; later Secretary General, Chinese Delegation, United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945); Assistant
2 The Nationalist Chinese government, later based in Taiwan, filled China’s seat at the United Nations until 1971.
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Secretary General of the United Nations in charge of Trusteeship and Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories (1946); Under Secretary General of the United Nations in charge of the Department of Conference Services (1955-1962); United Nations Commissioner for Technical Co-Operation (1962-1972)
Yee-Chun Koo (1901-1992), Vice Minister of Finance; later Executive Director, IMF (1946-1950); Treasurer, IMF (1953-1966)
Kuo-Ching Li (1892-?), Adviser to the Ministry of Finance; General Manager, Wah Chang Trading Corporation, New York
Te-Mou Hsi, Representative of the Ministry of Finance in Washington; later Alternate Executive Director, World Bank (1951)
Tsu-Yee Pei (1893-?), Director, Bank of China
Ts-Liang Soong, General Manager, Manufacturers Bank of China; later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1950)
Advisers
Hu Shih (1891-1962), former Chinese Ambassador to the United States (1938-1942) Kia-Ngau Chang (also transliterated “Zhang Jiaao”) (1889-1979), High Adviser to Executive Yuan; previously Deputy Governor, Central Bank of China (1935); Minister of Communications (1937-1942); later author, The Inflationary Spiral: The Experience in China, 1939-1950 (1958)
Ming Li, Chairman, Chekiang Industrial Bank
Ting-Sen Wei, Member, Legislative Yuan
Secretary General: Chao-Ting Chi (1903-1963), Secretary General, Foreign Exchange Control Commission, Ministry of Finance and Research Director, Economic Research Department, Central Bank of China
Secretary: Edward Bing-Shuey Lee (1903-?), Editor, Chinese Republic weekly
Technical Experts
Chi-Ling Tung, Vice Chairman, Foreign Trade Commission
Y.C. Wang, Secretary, Central Bank of China; later an IMF official
Cho-Ming Li, Professor of Economics, Southwestern Associated Universities, Kunming
Chih Tsang, Director, Shanghai Commercial and Savings Bank
Tsung-Fei Koh, Secretary, International Department, Directorate General of Posts
Vung-Yuen Woo, Chief of Monetary Section, Currency Department, Ministry of Finance
C.T. Yen, Director of Department, Central Bank of China
Technical Consultants
Arthur Nichols Young (1890-1984), Financial Adviser to the Chinese Government; American citizen; later adviser on Saudi Arabian monetary reform (1951-1952); brother of John Young, conference Secretariat
Carl Neprud (1889-1976), Commissioner of Customs, Ministry of Finance
Secretaries
Yen-Tsu Chen, Secretary, Central Bank of China
Daniel S.K. Chang, Secretary, Central Bank of China
Ping-Yeh Tcheng, Secretary, Central Trust of China
Bing-Shuey Lee, First Secretary, Chinese Embassy, Washington (likely the same as Edward Bing-Shuey Lee listed above)
Kien-Wen Yu, Second Secretary, Chinese Embassy, Washington
I.C. Sung, Assistant Treasurer, Universal Trading Corporation
Wan-Sen Lo, Secretary to the Representative of the Ministry of Finance in Washington
Ta-Chung Liu (1914-1975), Secretary, Office of Commercial Counselor, Chinese Embassy, Washington; later an IMF official and professor of economics at Cornell University
Yu-Chung Hsi, Secretary to the Representative of the Ministry of Finance in Washington
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Shun-Hsin Chou (1915-2001), Central Bank of China
C.L. Hsia, previously Adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs (1942); later Representative of China on the U.N. Economic and Social Council (1953)
Additional staff
P.F. Hsia
Marion Brooks
Augusta Chang
Ann Collican
Pearl Dorain
Jane Foley
Anna Koo
Chin-Kwan Koo
Mun-So Leung
Kuo-Ching Li
Miss M.C. Li
Ming Li
Mousheng Lin
Louise McConnell
Evelyn Neworth
Kai-Kwan Tsien
A.A. Young
Yin C. Yu
COLOMBIA
Chairman: Carlos Lleras Restrepo (1908-1994), Minister of Finance and Public Credit (1938-1941, 1941-1942, 1943-1944); previously President of the Chamber of Deputies; Comptroller General (1936-1937); later President of Colombia (1966-1970)
Other delegates
Miguel López Pumarejo (1893-1976), younger brother of Alfonso López Pumarejo, President of Colombia; Manager, Caja de Crédito Agrario, Industrial y Minero; previously Ambassador to the United States (1938-1939); Minister of National Economy (1940)
Victor Dugand, Banker
Technical Advisers
Antonio Puerto, Banker
Salvador Camacho Roldán, Banker, and Vice President, Bogotá Stock Exchange
Additional staff: Lucy Esquivel
COSTA RICA
Chairman: Francisco de Paula Gutiérrez Ross, Ambassador to the United States; previously Minister of Finance and Commerce
Other delegates
Luis Demetrio Tinoco Castro (1905-1986), Dean, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Costa Rica; previously Minister of Finance and Commerce; later Minister of Foreign Relations (1958-1961)
Fernando Madrigal A., Member of Board of Directors, Chamber of Commerce of Costa Rica
Counselor: José Rafaël Oreamuno Flores, Vice Chairman, Inter-American Development Commission; previously Minister (ambassador) to the United States; later Ambassador to the United States
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CUBA
Chairman: Eduardo I. Montoulieu (1883-1977), Minister of Finance
Technical advisers
Oscar García Montes (1888-?), Professor of Political Economy, University of Havana; formerly Minister of Finance (1940-1944); later Vice President of Cuba (circa 1952)
Ramiro Guerra y Sánchez (1880-1970), Technical Adviser of the Ministry of Finance; later director of Diario de la Marina, an influential newspaper
Miguel A. Pirez, Assistant to the Minister of Finance
Juan M. Menocal (1902-?), Professor of Taxation, University of Havana, and Adviser to the Office of the Prime Minister
Felipe Pazos y Roque (1912-2001), Commercial Attaché, Cuban Embassy, Washington; later an IMF official; President, Banco Nacional de Cuba (1950-52, 1959); and an Alliance for Progress and Inter-American Development Bank official
Luis Machado, Lawyer and Economist; later Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1948); Ambassador to the United States (1950-1952); Governor, World Bank (1949-1960)
Eduardo Durruthy, Director General of Statistics of the Ministry of Finance
Secretary: Calixto Montoulieu (1913-1991), Ministry of Finance; wife of Eduardo Montoulieu
Technical Secretary: Irving Gordon
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Chairman: Ladislav Karel Feierabend (1891-1969), Minister of Finance (1941-1945); previously Minister of Justice (1938); Minister of Agriculture (1938-1939)
Deputy Chairman: Jan Viktor Mládek (1911-1989), Ministry of Finance; later Executive Director, IMF (1946-1948); Governor, IMF (1946-1947); senior IMF official (1953-1977), including head of Paris office (1953-1961) and Director, Central Banking Service (1964-1977)
Other delegates
Antonín Basch (1896-1971), Department of Economics, Columbia University; previously an official of the Czechoslovak National Bank; later Chief Economist, World Bank (1947?-1957)
Josef Hanč, Director of the Czechoslovak Economic Service in the United States of America; previously Czechoslovak Consul in New York (1930s); later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1948); Minister Plenipotentiary, Embassy of Czechoslovakia, Washington (1948)
Ervin Paul Hexner (1893-1968), Professor of Economics and Political Science, University of North Carolina; later Senior Counselor and Assistant General Counsel, IMF (1946-1958)
Technical Adviser and Secretary: Ernest Sturc, Czechoslovak Economic Service in the United States; later an IMF official (1946-1970s?), including Director, Exchange and Trade Relations Department (1965-1970s?)
Additional staff
Maria Horáková
Božena Linhartová
Helena Minaříková
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC3
Chairman: Anselmo Copello (1879-1944), Ambassador to the United States (1943-1944); previously Director, Banco de Reservas de la República Dominicana (1941-?)
3 Roberto Despradel, minister counselor at the Dominican embassy in Washington and previously Secretary for Finance, is also listed as a member of the delegation in a preconference list in the unpublished Document 159 but nowhere else.
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Delegate: José Ramón Rodriguez, Minister Counselor, Embassy of the Dominican Republic, Washington; later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1947)
Secretary: José Mariano Sanz Lajara (1917-1963), First Secretary, Embassy of the Dominican Republic, Washington
ECUADOR
Chairman: Esteban F. Carbo (1891-?), Financial Counselor, Ecuadoran Embassy, Washington; previously employee and branch manager, Banco Central del Ecuador (1927-1937); later Governor, IMF (1946); Governor, World Bank (1946); Alternate Executive Director, World Bank (1950)
Other delegate: Sixto Enrique Durán Ballén (1899-?), Minister Counselor, Ecuadoran Embassy, Washington; previously Minister of Finance (1929-1931); later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1947)
EGYPT
Chairman: Sany Lackany Bey
Other delegates
Mahmoud Saleh el Falaky (also transliterated “al Falaki”), later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946-1951); Alternate Governor, IMF (1946-1953); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946)
Ahmed Selim, later Alternate Governor, IMF (1946); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1947)
Adviser: James I. Craig (1868-1952), Commissioner for Customs, Ministry of Finance (1934-1947); British subject
Technical Secretary: Leon Dichy (1900-?), sometime State Controller of Public Debt and Secretary, National Economic Council
Secretary: Mrs. Frances Carritt
EL SALVADOR
Chairman: Agustín Alfaro Morán (1897-?), Coffee plantation owner; sometime board member, Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador
Other delegates
Raúl Gamero Calderón, later Foreign Minister (circa 1960)
Víctor Manuel Valdés
ETHIOPIA
Chairman: Blatta Ephrem Tewelde Medhen (1894-?), Minister (ambassador) to the United States; previously Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs (1942-1943)
Other delegate: George Albert Blowers, Governor, State Bank of Ethiopia; American citizen; later Governor, IMF (1946-1948); Governor, World Bank (1946-1948); first Governor, Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (1952-1954); IMF official
Secretary: Helen Willard
Additional staff: Hugh R. Chase
FRANCE (FRENCH COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL LIBERATION)
Chairman: Pierre Mendès France (1907-1982), Commissioner of Finance; later Minister of the National Economy (1944-1945); Executive Director, IMF (1946); Governor, IMF (1946-1957); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1958); Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1947); President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1954-1955); Minister of State (1956); holder of numerous other political positions
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Other main delegate: André Istel (1887-1966), Technical Counselor to the Department of Finance; prominent banker; previously coauthor of a Free French plan for international monetary cooperation (1943)
Assistant delegates
Jean Rioust de Largentaye (1903-1970), Inspector of Finance; previously translator of John Maynard Keynes’s General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money into French (1942); later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946); Executive Director, IMF (1946-1964)
André Paul Maury
Robert Mossé (1906-1973), Professor of Economics, New School for Social Research, New York; later Professor of Economics, School of Law, University of Grenoble, and author of books on international monetary issues
Raoul Aglion (1904-2004), Legal Counselor; previously Professor of Economic History, École des Hautes Études Sociales (1930); later French diplomat and author
Secretaries
Jean Lambert
Gaston Mallet
Georges Roncales
Additional staff
Marguerite Hoppe
Jacqueline Mailhot
Andrée Orienter
Gertrude Picard
Marguerite Vincent
GREECE
Chairman: Kyriakos Varvaressos, Governor of the Bank of Greece (1939-1941, 1941-1944, 1945) and Ambassador Extraordinary for Economic and Financial Matters; previously Deputy Governor of the Bank of Greece (1933-1939); later Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1948)
Other delegates
Alexander J.A. Argyropoulos, Minister Resident; Director, Economic and Commercial Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Athanase (Athanasios) Ioannou “A.J.” Sbarounis (1892-?), Director General, Ministry of Finance; later Governor, World Bank (1946-1947)
Technical Advisers
Alexander Loverdos, Ministry of Finance; later Alternate Governor, IMF (1946-?); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-?); Head, Greek Office of Economic Research, New York (circa 1946)
André (Andreas George) Papandreou (1919-1996), later Prime Minister (1981-1989, 1993-1996)
Additional attendee: Kaity Kyriazi Argyropoulos, wife of Alexander J.A. Argyropoulos
GUATEMALA
Chairman: Manuel Noriega Morales (1907-1975), Postgraduate Student in Economics, Harvard University; previously Professor of Accounting, University of Guatemala; later Governor, IMF (1946-1954); Governor, World Bank (1946-1954); Secretary of Economy and Labor; Governor, Bank of Guatemala
HAITI
Chairman: André Liautaud (1907-1951), Ambassador to the United States (1943-?); previously Under Secretary of State for Finance, Commerce, and National Economy (1942-1943)
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Other delegate: Pierre Chauvet (1915-?), Under Secretary of State for Finance; later Under Secretary of State for Commerce and Delegate, United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945)
HONDURAS
Chairman: Julián R. Cáceres (1891-1950), Ambassador to the United States; previously departmental governor (1926, 1928); later Governor, IMF (1946-1948); Governor, World Bank (1946-1948); Ambassador to Argentina
Other delegate: Hernán Benegas
ICELAND
Chairman: Magnús Sigurðsson (1880-1947), Manager, National Bank of Iceland; later Governor, World Bank (1946-1947)
Other delegates
Ásgeir Ásgeirsson (1894-1972), Fishery Bank of Iceland; previously Minister of Finance (1931-1934); Prime Minister (1932-1934); later President (1952-1968)
Þórhallur (also transliterated “Thórhallur”) Ásgeirsson (1919-2005), later Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Commerce; son of Ásgeir Ásgeirsson
Svanbjörn Frímannsson (1903-1992), Chairman, State Commerce Board; previously Head Cashier (a top manager), National Bank of Iceland (1937); later Governor, Central Bank of Iceland (1971-1973)
Secretary: Martha Thors (1918-?), Secretary, Icelandic Legation to the United States
INDIA
Chairman: Sir (Abraham) Jeremy Raisman (1892-1978), Member (minister) of Finance, Government of India (1939-1945); British subject
Other delegates
Sir Theodore Emanuel Guggenheim Gregory (1890-1970), Economic Adviser to the Government of India; sometime Professor of Banking and Currency, London School of Economics and Political Science; British subject
Sir Chintaman Dwarakanath Deshmukh (1896-1982), Governor, Reserve Bank of India (1943-1949); later Governor, IMF (1946-1955); Governor, World Bank (1946-1947, 1950-1956); Minister of Finance (1950-1957)
Sir Ramasamy Chetty Kandasamy Shanmukham Chetty (1892-1953) previously President, Central Legislative Assembly of India (1933-1935); Diwan (senior royal administrative officer), Indian princely state of Cochin (Kochi) (1935-1941); later first Minister of Finance of India (1947-1949)
Ardeshir Darabshaw (A.D.) Shroff (1899-1965), Director, Tata Sons, Ltd.
Adviser: Sir David Burnett Meek (1885-1964), Trade Commissioner, London; British subject
Assistant Adviser: Mrs. A.A. Henderson
Secretary: Bal Krishna (B.K.) Madan (1911-?); later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946-1948); Alternate Executive Director, World Bank (1947-1948); Executive Director, IMF (1948-1950, 1967-1971); Alternate Governor, IMF (1957, 1961, 1964, 1967, 1968); Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India (1964-1967)
Additional staff
Mrs. Racheil
Miss Walshe
IRAN
Chairman: Abol Hassan Ebtehaj (1899-1999), Governor, National Bank of Iran; later Governor, IMF (1946-1949); Governor, World Bank (1946-1950); Director, Middle East Department, IMF (1953-1954)
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Other delegates
Ali Akbar Daftary, Counselor, Iranian Legation, Washington
Hossein Navab, Consul General, New York; later Minister of Foreign Affairs (1952)
Taghi Nassr (1906-?), Iranian Trade and Economic Commissioner, New York; previously Director General, Ministry of Finance (1940)
Additional staff: Jane Downey
IRAQ4
Chairman: Ibrahim Kamal (1895-?), Senator; previously Minister of Finance (1937-1938)
Other delegates
Lionel Maynard Swan (1885-?), Adviser to the Ministry of Finance; British subject
Is Ibrahim Al-Kabir (1885-?), Accountant General, Ministry of Finance
Claude E. Loombe, Comptroller of Exchange and Currency Officer; British subject; previously banker with the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (1930s); exchange control officer, Reserve Bank of India (1942?)
Additional staff: Maria Djorjevitch
LIBERIA
Chairman: William E. Dennis, Sr., Secretary of the Treasury
Other delegates
James F. Cooper, previously Secretary of the Treasury (1916-1917)
Walter F. Walker, Consul General, New York
Secretary: K. Jefferies Adorkor, Jr.
LUXEMBOURG
Chairman: Hugues Le Gallais (1896-?), Minister to the United States (1940-1958); later Alternate Governor, IMF (1956-1958); Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1956-1958); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1948)
MEXICO
Chairman: Eduardo Suárez Aranzolo (1894-1976), Secretary of the Treasury and Public Credit (1935-1946)
Other delegates
Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros (1903-1959), Executive President, Nacional Financiera, and Director, Banco de México; later Ambassador to the United States (1945-1948); Governor, IMF (1946-1947); Governor, World Bank (1946-1948)
Rodrigo Gómez Gómez (1897-1970), Manager, Banco de México; later Director General, Banco de México (1952-1970); Executive Director, IMF (1946-1948, 1958-1960); Alternate Governor, IMF (1946-1947, 1953-1956, 1960-1968); Governor, IMF (1957-1959)
Daniel Cosío Villegas (18981976), Chief, Department of Economic Studies, Banco de México; President, United Nations Economic and Social Council (1959)
General Secretaries
Salvador Duhart W., First Secretary, Mexican Embassy, Washington
Julián Sáenz Hinojosa (1908?-1982), Mexican Consul, New York
4 Ali Al-Ayyubi Jawdat, Iraqi minister (ambassador) in Washington and previously Prime Minister (1934-1935), is also listed as a possible member of the delegation in a preconference list in the unpublished Document 159 but nowhere else.
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Technical Secretary: Víctor Luis Urquidi Bingham (1919-2004), Economist, Department of Economic Studies, Banco de México
Additional staff: Ana Maria Bartning
NETHERLANDS
Chairman: Johan Willem “Wim” Beyen (also spelled “Beijen”) (1897-1976), Financial Adviser to the Netherlands Government; Director, Unilever; previously Alternate to the President, Bank for International Settlements (1935-1937); President, Bank for International Settlements (1937-1939); later Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1952); Executive Director, IMF (1948-1952); Minister of Foreign Affairs (1952-1956)
Other delegates
Daniël Crena de Iongh (1888-1970), President, Board for the Netherlands Indies, Surinam, and Curaçao in the United States; previously President, Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij (Netherlands Trading Company) (1934-1939); later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946); Alternate Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1947); Treasurer, IMF (1946); Treasurer, World Bank (1947-1953); Executive Director, IMF (1953-1955); Executive Director, World Bank (1953-1955)
Hendrik Riemens, Financial Attaché, Netherlands Embassy, Washington
Adriaan Hendrik Philipse, Member, Netherlands Economic, Financial, and Shipping Mission in the United States
Experts
A. Andriesse, Private banker
Anton Dirk Bestebreurtje (1916-1983), President, Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in New York, Inc.
Jacques Jacobus “Koos” Polak (1914-2010), Economist, Netherlands Economic, Financial, and Shipping Mission to the United States; previously a League of Nations official; later a senior IMF official (1947-1979); originator of the “Polak model” of the monetary approach to the balance of payments (1957); Executive Director, IMF (1981-1986)
C.H. Schoch, Representative, Netherlands Indies Exchange Control
Advisers to the Chairman
J. Jerome Williams, Netherlands Embassy, Washington
I.H. Capriles, Manager, Maduro & Curiel’s Bank
W.J.A. de Heer, Secretary, Netherlands Antilles Foreign Exchange Commission
Secretary: Aron “Ronnie” Broches (1914?-1997); later a World Bank official (1946-1979), including General Counsel (1959-1979)
Additional staff
Miss L. Polak
Miss B. Thielen
NEW ZEALAND
Chairman: Walter Nash (1882-1968), Minister of Finance (1935-1949); later Prime Minister (1957-1960); knighted (1965)
Other delegates
Bernard Carl Ashwin (1896-1975), Secretary to the Treasury; Chairman, Economic Stabilization Commission; later knighted (1956)
Edward Coldham Fussell (1901-1978), Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of New Zealand; later Governor, Reserve Bank of New Zealand (1948-1962)
Allan George Barnard Fisher (1895-1976), Counselor, New Zealand Legation, Washington; economist who developed the idea of service industries as a distinct economic sector; later an IMF official and the first editor of the economics journal IMF Staff Papers
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Adviser and Secretary: Bruce R. Turner, Second Secretary, New Zealand Legation, Washington
Additional staff: Miss A. Keaney
NICARAGUA
Chairman: Guillermo Sevilla Sacasa (1908-1997), Ambassador to the United States (1943-1979); later Governor, World Bank (1946-1947, 1949-1979); previously President of the National Congress and interim President of Nicaragua (1936)
Other delegates
León DeBayle (Debayle) Sacasa (1902-?), previously Ambassador to the United States and lawyer for Banco Nacional de Nicaragua
J. Jesús Sánchez Roig (1903-?), Vice Chairman, Board of Directors, Banco Nacional de Nicaragua; later Governor, World Bank (1948); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1953-1953)
NORWAY
Chairman: Wilhelm Christian Ottesen Keilhau (1888-1954), Director, Norges Bank (Bank of Norway), pro tempore, London; previously Professor of Economics, University of Oslo
Other delegates
Ole Colbjørnsen (1897-1973), Financial Counselor, Norwegian Embassy, Washington; previously member of Norwegian parliament (1936-1940); Director, Norges Bank (Bank of Norway) (1940); later Alternate Governor, IMF (1946-1955); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1955)
Arne Skaug (1906-1974), Commercial Counselor, Norwegian Embassy, Washington; previously Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin; later Governor, World Bank (1955-1961); Minister of Trade and Shipping (1955-1962); Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1962-1968)
Technical Adviser: Kaare Petersen (1911-1993), Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission, New York; later served in several United Nations assignments
Secretary: Torfinn Oftedal (1909-1989), First Secretary, Norwegian Embassy, Washington; later Ambassador to Austria, Canada, Czechoslovakia and Romania
Additional staff: Aagot Holst Grubbe
PANAMA
Chairman: Augusto Guillermo Arango (1906-?), President, Investors Service Corporation of Panama; previously Comptroller General of Panama (1940-?); later Ambassador to the United States
Other delegate: Narciso E. Garay, Jr. (1917?-?), First Secretary, Panamanian Embassy, Washington
PARAGUAY
Chairman: Celso R. Velázquez (1897-?), Ambassador to the United States; previously Under Secretary of the Treasury
Other delegate: Néstor M. Campos Ros (1912-?), First Secretary, Paraguayan Embassy, Washington
PERU
Chairman: Pedro Gerardo Beltrán Espantoso (1897-1979), Ambassador-designate to the United States; previously the first Vice President, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú; later Minister of Economy and Finance (1959-1961) and Prime Minister (1959-1961)
Other delegates
Manuel B. Llosa, Second Vice President of the Chamber of Deputies; later Minister of Finance and Commerce (1948)
Andrés Francisco Dasso Hoke (1893-1958), Senator from Lima; previously Mayor of Lima (1922-1925); later Minister of Economy and Finance (1950-1952)
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Alberto Alvarez Calderón, Senator from Lima
Juvenal Monge (1890?-?), Deputy from Cuzco; previously Professor of Engineering and Economics, National School of Engineering
Juan Chávez Dartnell (1886-?), Minister, Commercial Counselor, Peruvian Embassy, Washington
Technical Adviser: Emilio G. Barreto Latzeh (1909-? [alive as of 2009]), Adviser, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú; later President, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú (1969-1975)
Secretary: Alvaro Rey de Castro, Third Secretary, Peruvian Embassy, Washington
Additional staff
Mercedes Castañeda
Mary Nickson
COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES
Chairman: Colonel Andrés Soriano y Roxas (1898-1963), Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce (1942-1944)
Other delegates
Jaime Hernandez (1892-1986), Auditor General; previously Professor of Law and Accounting, Far Eastern University; later Secretary of Finance (1944-1946, 1953-1960)
Joseph H. Foley, Manager, Philippine National Bank, New York Agency; American citizen; later Alternate Governor, IMF (1946); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946)
Technical Adviser and Secretary: Ismael Mathay, Sr., Technical Assistant to the Auditor General, Commissioner of Budget and Finance (1944-1945); later Secretary of the Budget (1945-1946)
Additional staff: Delphine Churko
POLAND
Chairman: Ludwik Grosfeld (1889-1955), Minister of Finance (1943-1944); later Member, Sejm (parliament) (1947-1952)
Other delegates
Leon Baránski (1895-1982), Director General, Bank of Poland; later Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1950); first Governor, Central Bank of Kenya (1966-1967)
Zygmunt Karpinski (1892-?), Director, Bank of Poland; later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946)
Stanisław Kirkor (1898-1983), Director, Ministry of Finance
Janusz Zółtowski (1903-1969), Financial Counselor, Polish Embassy, Washington; later Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1950)
Experts
Michal (Michael) Angelo Heilperin (1909-?), Associate Professor of Economics, Hamilton College; writer on international monetary economics
Władysław Roman Malinowski (1909-1975), Assistant Financial Counselor, Polish Embassy, Washington; later Secretary of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (early 1960s); instrumental in the founding of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Secretary: Gustaw Gottesman (1918-1998), Secretary to the Minister of Finance
Additional staff
Nina Sztark
Adela Zaleska
Additional attendee: Mrs. Krikor, wife of Stanisław Kirkor
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
Chairman: S. Frank N. Gie, Minister to the United States
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Other delegates
John Edward “Jack” Holloway (1890-?), Secretary (top career official) for Finance; previously Lecturer and Professor of Economics, Gray University College (1917-1925); later Governor, IMF (1946, 1948); Governor, World Bank (1946); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1948); Alternate Governor, IMF (1949-1951, 1954); South African Ambassador to the United States (1954-1956)
Michiel Hendrik de Kock (1898-1976), Deputy Governor, South African Reserve Bank; author, Central Banking (1939); later Governor, South African Reserve Bank (1945-1962); Alternate Governor, IMF (1946-1948); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946-1948, 1949-1963); Governor, World Bank (1948)
Adviser: Willem Christiaan Naudé (1909-?), Attaché, South African Legation, Washington; later South African Ambassador to the United States (1960-1965)
Additional staff: Charlotte Hahn
UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR)
Chairman: Mikhail Stepanovich Stepanov (1896-1966), Deputy People’s Commissar of Foreign Trade
Other delegates
Pavel Andreyevich Maletin (1905-1969), Deputy People’s Commissar of Finance (1939-1945); later Deputy Minister of Finance (1960-1969)
Nikolai Fyodorovich Chechulin, Deputy President, State Bank of the USSR
Ivan Danilovich Zlobin (also transliterated “Slobin”), Chief, Monetary Division of the People’s Commissariat of Finance
A.A. Arutiunian, Professor; Expert-Consultant of the People’s Commissariat for Foreign Affairs; later Delegate, United Nations Economic and Social Council; Chief Delegate, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
A.P. Morozov, Chief, Monetary Division of the People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade
Aleksei Mikhailovich Smirnov, Professor, Institute of Foreign Trade; later author, Normalization of World Trade and the Monetary Problem (1952)
P.I. Titov
N.S. Ivanov
A.V. Borisov
L.M. Andreev
M.A. Chekmarev
N.I. Kuznetzov
N.K. Panchenko
Mrs. L.J. Gouseva (also transliterated “Guseva”)
Experts
M.M. Idashkin, Financial Adviser, People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade
Fedor (also transliterated “Fyodor”) Petrovich Bystrov, Professor of Finance, Institute of Foreign Trade
Secretaries
M.I. Chibisov, Assistant to the Chairman
N.I. Kuzminsky, Private Secretary to the Chairman
Additional staff
S.S. Cheldiev
N.I. Cheklin
V.I. Kolchin
A.V. Miasnikova
A.K. Pugacheva
Z.K. Sevastianova
A.L. Tziboulsky (also transliterated “Tsibulsky”)
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N.B. Zhivulin
UNITED KINGDOM
Chairman: John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), Lord Keynes, Economic Adviser to the Chancellor of the Exchequer; Director, Bank of England; most influential economist of the 20th century; created Baron Keynes of Tilton (1942); later Governor, IMF (1946); Governor, World Bank (1946); Vice President, World Bank (1946)
Other delegates
Hon. Robert Henry Brand (1878-1963), United Kingdom Treasury Representative in Washington; previously Managing Director, Lazard Brothers and Company; Director; Lloyd’s Bank; later created Baron Brand of Eydon (1946); Alternate Governor, IMF (1946); Alternate Governor, World Bank (1946)
Sir (Crawfurd) Wilfrid Griffin Eady (1890-1962), Joint Second Secretary (second-highest career official) and head of Overseas Finance, United Kingdom Treasury; highest-ranking British official at Bretton Woods; previously Deputy Under Secretary of State, Home Office (1938-1940)
Nigel Bruce Ronald (1894-1973), Assistant Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Foreign Office; later (1947-1955) ambassador to Portugal; knighted
Dennis Holme Robertson (1890-1963), United Kingdom Treasury; second only to Keynes in the British delegation in his contributions to the Bretton Woods conference; previously and later Cambridge University monetary economist; later knighted; the best writer economics has ever produced
Lionel Charles Robbins (1898-1984), War Cabinet Office; Professor, London School of Economics and a leader in its rise to international eminence; later created Baron Robbins of Clare Market (1958)
Redvers Opie (1900-1984), Counselor, British Embassy, Washington; economist
Advisers
(William) Eric Beckett (1896-1966), chief Legal Adviser, Foreign Office; chief British legal expert at Bretton Woods; later knighted (1948)
George Lewis French Bolton (1900-1982), Adviser, Bank of England; later Executive Director, IMF (1946-1952); Alternate Governor, IMF (1952-1956); Executive Director, Bank of England (1948-1957); Director, Bank of England (1957-1968); knighted
Charles H. Campbell, First Secretary, British Embassy, Washington
John W. Russell, Second Secretary, British Embassy, Washington
Ralph H. Thomas, Second Secretary, British Embassy, Washington
Secretaries
H.E. Brooks, United Kingdom Treasury
Arthur Wendell “Peter” Snelling (1914-1996), Dominions Office; later High Commissioner in Ghana (1959–1961); Deputy Under Secretary of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1961–1969); Ambassador to South Africa (1970-1973); knighted
Richard T.G. Miles, Third Secretary, British Embassy, Washington; later Adviser, British Delegation to the United Nations
Additional staff
L.B. Harris
Miss Fadzzen
Arthur S. Gambling
Miss Gregory
Miss Hegarty
Miss Houlden
Miss Macey
Miss Meffan
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Miss Page
Miss Peak
Miss Simpson
Miss Storey
Additional attendee: Lydia Lopokova, Baroness Keynes, wife of John Maynard Keynes
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (* = also a member of the conference Secretariat)
Chairman: Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (1891-1967), Secretary of the Treasury (1934-1945)
Vice Chairman: Frederick Moore “Fred” Vinson (1890-1953), Director, Office of Economic Stabilization; previously member, U.S. House of Representatives (1929-1929, 1933-1938); federal judge (1938-1943); later Secretary of the Treasury (1945-1946); Governor, IMF (1946); Governor, World Bank (1946); Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court (1946-1953)
Other delegates
Dean Gooderham Acheson (1893-1971), Assistant Secretary of State; previously Under Secretary of the Treasury (1933); Acting Secretary of the Treasury (1933); later Secretary of State (1949-1953); a major drafter of the World Bank agreement at Bretton Woods
Edward Eagle “Ned” Brown (1885-1959), President, First National Bank of Chicago; President, Federal Advisory Council, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; a major drafter of the World Bank agreement at Bretton Woods
Leo Thomas Crowley, Administrator, Foreign Economic Administration; Chairman, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; Alien Property Administrator
Marriner Stoddard Eccles (1890-1977), Chairman, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1934-1948)
Mabel Newcomer (1891-1983), Professor of Economics, Vassar College
Brent Spence (1874-1967), U.S. House of Representatives (1931-1963), Democrat from Kentucky; Chairman, House Committee on Banking and Currency
Charles William Tobey (1880-1953), U.S. Senate (1939-1953); Republican from New Hampshire; Member, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency; previously Governor of New Hampshire (1929-1931) and Member of Congress (1933-1939)
Robert Ferdinand Wagner, Sr. (1877-1953), U.S. Senate (1927-1949); Democrat from New York ; Chairman, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency (1937-1947)
Harry Dexter White (1892-1948), Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury; chief American negotiator on international monetary matters during World War II; main originator of the ideas in the IMF agreement; previously Professor of Economics, Lawrence College (1932-1934); later Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (a Senate-confirmed position) (1945-1946); Executive Director, IMF (1946-1947); passed secrets to USSR
Jesse Paine Wolcott (1893-1969), U.S. House of Representatives (1931-1957); Republican from Michigan; Member, House Committee on Banking and Currency
Technical Advisers
James Waterhouse Angell (1898-1986), Foreign Economic Administration; a major drafters of the World Bank agreement at Bretton Woods; previously and later Professor of Economics, Columbia University
Edward Morris “Eddie” Bernstein (1904-1996), Assistant Director of Monetary Research, Treasury Department, Executive Secretary of the Delegation; the most important contributor to Bretton Woods conference other than Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes; later Director, Research Department, IMF (1946-1958)
Malcolm Bryan,* First Vice President, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
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Emilio Gabriel “Peter” Collado (1910-1995), Chief, Division of Financial and Monetary Affairs, Department of State; a major drafter of the World Bank agreement at Bretton Woods; later Executive Director, World Bank (1946-1947)
Henry H. Edmiston (1907-1996), Vice President, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Walter Gardner, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System; an important drafter of the World Bank agreement at the Bretton Woods conference
Emanuel Alexandrovich Goldenweiser (1883-1953), Director of Research and Statistics, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System; previously President, American Statistical Association (1943); one of the most influential career officials of the Federal Reserve
Alvin Harvey Hansen (1887-1975), Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System; previously and later Professor of Economics, Harvard University; introduced the economics of John Maynard Keynes in the United States
Frederick Livesey, Adviser, Office of Economic Affairs, Department of State
Walter Clinton Louchheim, Jr., (1899-1973) Securities and Exchange Commission
August William Maffry (1905-1982), Department of Commerce; later Vice President, Export-Import Bank of the United States (1945-1947); consultant, Economic Cooperation Administration (which administered the Marshall Plan) (1948-1951)
Norman T. Ness, Treasury Department; later a senior official for economic affairs at the Department of State
Leo S. Pasvolsky (1893-1953), Department of State; a major drafter of the United Nations charter; in charge of postwar planning for the Department of State
Warren Lee Pierson (1896-1978), President, Export-Import Bank of the United States (1936-1945)
Chauncey William Reed (1890-1956), U.S. House of Representatives (1935-1956); Republican from Illinois; Member, House Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures
Andrew Lawrence Somers (1895-1949), U.S. House of Representatives (1925-1949); Democrat from New York; Chairman, House Committee on Coinage, Weights and Measures
Menc Stephen “Matt” Szymczak (1894-1978), Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System (1933-1961)
Legal Advisers
Ansel Frank Luxford (1911-1971), Treasury Department; Chief Legal Adviser; later a senior World Bank official (1946-1951), including Assistant General Counsel (1948-1951)
Benjamin V. Cohen (1894-1983), General Counsel, Office of War Mobilization (1943-1945); previously Associate General Counsel, Public Works Administration (1933-1934); General Counsel, National Power Policy Commission (1934-1941); adviser to Ambassador to the United Kingdom John G. Winant (1941); later Counselor, U.S. Department of State (1945-1947)
Oscar Sydney Cox (1905-1966), Foreign Economic Administration
Ethan B. Stroud (1922-2009), Vice President, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
Secretary General of the Delegation: Charles Stewart Bell (1894-1945), Treasury Department
Assistants to the Chairman
Henrietta Stein Klotz (1901-1988), Treasury Department
Margaret McHugh, Treasury Department
M. Frederik Smith (1908?-1997), Treasury Department
Arthur Sweetser (1888–1968), Office of War Information; previously public information officer, League of Nations; later public information officer, United Nations
Technical Secretaries
(Harry) Elting Arnold* (1912-1988), Legal Staff, Treasury Department; Assistant General Counsel, Treasury Department (1948-1960); Acting Director, Foreign Assets Control, Treasury Department (1950-1960); General Counsel, Inter-American Development Bank (1960-1971)
Richard B. Brenner,* Treasury Department; later Assistant General Counsel, IMF (1946-1955)
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Isador Lubin (1896-1978), Commissioner, Bureau of Labor Statistics (1933-1946); later U.S. representative to the U.N. Economic and Employment Commission (1946-1950); U.S. representative to the U.N. Economic and Social Council (1950-1953)
George F. Luthringer (1904-1955), Department of State; later Alternate Executive Director, IMF (1946-1948); Director, Far Eastern, Middle Eastern, and Latin American Department, IMF (1950-1953); Director, Western Hemisphere Department, IMF (1953-1955)
Emanuel E. “Duke” Minskoff, Treasury Department; later Director, Division of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury Department
Dorothy F. Richardson, Treasury Department; later married Solomon Adler (1945), a member of the Silvermaster spy ring (see just below); Richardson was not accused of being a member
(Nathan) Gregory Silvermaster (1898-1964), Director, Labor Division, Department of Agriculture; born in Russia; detailed to War Production Board; Chief Planning Technician, Procurement Division, Treasury Department; leader of a spy ring that passed secrets to the USSR
Joseph P. Dreibelbis (1899-1972), Assistant General Counsel, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System; later Vice President, Bankers Trust Company
Lauchlin Bernard Currie (1902-1993), Deputy Director, Foreign Economic Administration (1943-1944); influential New Deal economist; previously Treasury Department (1934); author, The Supply and Control of Money (1934); Assistant Director of Research, Federal Reserve Board (1934-1935) and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1935-1939); member of the Silvermaster spy ring
Solomon Adler (1909-1994), Economist, Treasury Department (1936-1950); Treasury Representative in China (1941-1948); member of the Silvermaster spy ring
Hawthorne Arey (1905-1972), previously attorney, Reconstruction Finance Corporation; later Member of Board of Directors, Export-Import Bank of the United States (1949-1953, 1954-1961); Director, Operations Division, Inter-American Development Bank (?-1968)
Additional staff
Charles Buettner
Jacqueline Ambrose
Mary M. Cuthill
Jane Dickinson
Donald Eddy
Barbara Evans
Henry Fagan
Louis F. Ficks
Miss Kendall
John Larson
Ruth Lucas
Jo Morgan
Ellison Norris
Lorna Rippel
Elsie Scharf
Linda M. Shanahan
Helen H. Shippee
Arthur Smithies* (1907-1981), U.S. Bureau of the Budget; later Professor of Economics, Harvard University; also on the conference secretariat
Ruth Spangler
Ann Triano
William Ludwig “Lud” Ullmann* (1908-1993), Captain, U.S. Army; leading member of a spy ring that passed secrets to the Soviet Union and that was headed by Gregory Silvermaster, who also attended
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the conference; previously administrative assistant to Harry Dexter White and colleague of Frank Coe, both also conference participants, at the U.S. Treasury Department; also on the conference secretariat
Myrtle Utech
Marian Vouk
URUGUAY
Chairman: Mario La Gamma Acevedo (1910?-?), Expert, Ministry of Finance; Professor of Finance, University of Montevideo; later Governor, World Bank
Other delegate: Hugo García, Financial Attaché, Uruguayan Embassy, Washington; later Governor, IMF (1946-1947); Governor, World Bank (1946-1947)
VENEZUELA
Chairman: Rodolfo Rojas (1896-?), Minister of the Treasury; previously a banker
Other delegates
Alfonso Espinosa, President, Permanent Committee of Finance, Chamber of Deputies
Cristóbal L. Mendoza (18861978), Legal Adviser to the Banco Central de Venezuela; previously Minister of Finance (1937-1938)
José Joaquín Gonzáles Gorrondona hijo (1910-1988), President, Office of Import Control; Director, Banco Central de Venezuela
Secretary: Manuel Pérez Guerrero (1911-1985), Chief, Office of the Committee for the Study of Post-War Questions, Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Professor of Economic and Social Sciences, Central University of Venezuela; later Minister of Finance (1947-1948); Minister of Mines and Hydrocarbons (1963-1967)
Additional staff: Nely Santana
YUGOSLAVIA
Chairman: Vladimir Rybar, Counselor, Yugoslav Embassy, Washington
Additional staff: Anne Starcevic
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Observers
DENMARK
Observer: Henrik de Kauffmann (1888-1963), Danish Minister (ambassador) at Washington; later Minister without Portfolio (1945)
Adviser: Count Kai Benedict Ahlefeldt-Laurvig (1903-1985), Financial Counselor, Danish Legation, Washington
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Observer: Alexander Loveday (1888-1962), Director, Economic, Financial, and Transit Department
Alternate: Ragnar Nurkse (1907-1959); author, International Currency Experience: Lessons of the Inter-War Period (1944); later Professor of Economics, Columbia University
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE
Observer: Edward Joseph Phelan (1888-1967), Acting Director
Alternates
(Clarence) Wilfred Jenks (1909-1973), Legal Adviser; later Director-General, International Labour Organisation (1970-1973)
Edward John Riches, Acting Chief, Economic and Statistical Section
UNITED NATIONS INTERIM COMMISSION ON FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
Observer: Edward Twentyman, Delegate from the United Kingdom
UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND REHABILITATION ADMINISTRATION
Observers
Abraham Howard Feller (1904-1952), General Counsel (1944-1945); later first General Counsel of the United Nations (1946-1952)
Mieczyslaw Sokolowski (1889-1981), Financial Adviser
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Conference Secretariat (* = also a member of the United States delegation)
Secretary General: Warren H. Kelchner (1895-1965), Chief of the Division of International Conferences, U.S. Department of State
Technical Secretary General: (Virginius) Frank Coe (1907-1980), Assistant Administrator, U.S. Foreign Economic Administration; later Secretary, International Monetary Fund (1946-1952); member of a spy ring that passed secrets to the Soviet Union and was headed by Gregory Silvermaster, who also attended the conference
Assistant Secretary General: Philip Caryl Jessup (1897-1986), Professor of International Law, Columbia University; later U.S. representative to the United Nations (1948-1952); Judge, International Court of Justice (1961-1970)
Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries of Technical Commissions and Committees
(Harry) Elting Arnold* (1912-1988), Legal Staff, Treasury Department; Assistant General Counsel, Treasury Department (1948-1960); Acting Director, Foreign Assets Control, Treasury Department (1950-1960); General Counsel, Inter-American Development Bank (1960-1971)
Henry J. Bittermann, U.S. Treasury Department; previously Associate Professor of Economics, Ohio State University (1930s-1943); secretary, informal drafting committee, Atlantic City conference (1944); later Director, Office of International Financial Policy Coordination, U.S. Treasury Department
Karl Richard Bopp (1906-1979), Federal Reserve Board; later President, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1958-1970)
Alice Bourneuf (1912-1980), Federal Reserve Board; later Professor of Economics, Boston College
Richard B. Brenner,* U.S. Treasury Department; later Assistant General Counsel, IMF (1946-1955)
William Adams Brown, Jr., U.S. Department of State; economist; author, The International Gold Standard Reinterpreted, 1914-1934 (1940)
Malcolm Bryan,* First Vice President, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; later President, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (1951-1965)
Lauren Wilde Casaday (1905-1969), U.S. Treasury Department; labor economist; later Director, University of Arizona Bureau of Business Research
Eleanor Lansing Dulles (1895-1996), Office of Monetary Affairs, U.S. Department of State; economist; later active in postwar American economic reconstruction efforts in Austria and Germany
Charles Henry Dyson (1909-1997), Colonel, U.S. Army; helped establish administration of Lend Lease Program during World War II; later a pioneer of leveraged buyouts
Mordecai Ezekiel (1899-1974), U.S. Department of Agriculture; agricultural economist; described the “pork cycle”
John Fuqua, U.S. Department of State
Raymond French Mikesell (1913-2006), U.S. Treasury Department; later Professor of Economics, University of Oregon
Emanuel E. “Duke” Minskoff (1909-1965), U.S. Treasury Department; later Director, Division of Foreign Assets Control, U.S. Treasury Department
Ruth B. Russell, U.S. Department of State; historian; later author of works on the United Nations
Orvis A. Schmidt (1912-1967), Acting Director, Bureau of Foreign Funds Control, U.S. Treasury Department; later a World Bank senior official (1947-1967), including Director, Western Hemisphere Department (1956-1964)
Arthur Smithies* (1907-1981), U.S. Bureau of the Budget; later Professor of Economics, Harvard University; also on the staff of the U.S. delegation
Leroy Dean Stinebower (1904-1976), Adviser, Office of Economic Affairs, U.S. Department of State; previously Chief, Division of Economic Studies, Department of State; later adviser or representative to many international economic and political conferences
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Janet Racolin Sundelson (?-1949), U.S. Treasury Department; economist
William Ludwig “Lud” Ullmann* (1908-1993), Captain, U.S. Army; leading member of a spy ring that passed secrets to the Soviet Union and that was headed by Gregory Silvermaster, who also attended the conference; previously administrative assistant to Harry Dexter White and colleague of Frank Coe, both also conference participants, at the U.S. Treasury Department; also on the staff of the U.S. delegation
Arthur P. Upgren (1897-1986), Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis; later Dean, Amos Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College (1952-1957)
John Parke Young (1895-1988), Chief, Division of International Finance, U.S. Department of State; brother of Arthur Young, technical consultant to China at conference; later a participant in the Dumbarton Oaks conference
Chief Press Relations Officer: Michael James McDermott (1894-1955), Special Assistant to the U.S. Secretary of State and Chief, Division of Current Information (chief spokesman), U.S. Department of State
Assistant Press Relations Officers
Harold R. Beckley (1897-1955), Superintendent, U.S. Senate Press Gallery
George H. Coffelt, U.S. Treasury Department
John C. Pool, U.S. Department of State
Executive Secretary: Clarke L. Willard (1906-1952), Assistant Chief, Division of International Conferences, U.S. Department of State
Liaison Secretaries
Elbridge Durbrow (1903-1997), chief, Eastern European Division, U.S. Department of State (1944-1946); later U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1957-1961)
James H. Wright, Foreign Service Officer, U.S. Department of State
Special Assistants to the Secretary General
Edward G. Miller, Jr. (1911-1968), Adviser, Liberated Areas Division, U.S. Department of State; later Special Assistant to Under Secretary of State Dean Acheson (1945-1947); Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs (1949-1952)
Ivan Bertis White (1907-1991), Foreign Service Officer, U.S. Department of State; later Deputy Assistant Secretary for European Affairs. U.S. Department of State
Administrative Secretary: Lyle L. Schmitter (1907?-?) U.S. Department of State
Assistant Administrative Secretary: P. Henry Mueller, U.S. Department of State
Chief of the Interpreting and Translating Bureau: Guillermo A. Suro (1907-1961), Acting Chief, Central Translating Division, U.S. Department of State
Secretary for Transportation and Special Services: M. Hamilton Osborne, U.S. Department of State
Editor of the “Journal”: Frances Armbruster, U.S. Department of State
Additional staff
Mabel Acton
M. Clare Ahern
Alice Alexander
Germaine B. Angle
Jean Armes
Alta Austin
Lucille Bell
Marie A. Benda
Lucie A. Bennett
Ruth H. Biglow (1906-1983)
Elizabeth Boatner
-25-
Alice Bolton
Jewel M. Bostick
Gertrude A. Brehl
J. Rosamond Brister
Augusta Brown
Teresa Burkley
Anna V. Burroughs
Helen Shirley Campbell
Edmund Caskie
Catherine V. Coleman
Margaret D. Cox
Frances Criss
Jane Cullen
Mary J. Cullinane
Roxy Dale
Norma DeAngelis
Frankey R. DeGoover
Thomas B. Dewey
Adele E. Dix (1903-1995), U.S. Department of State
Lillie B. Dowrick (1893-1967)
Ralph S. Duter (1910-1970)
E. Miriam Edwards
M. Harriet Evans
Myrtis C. Evans (1902-1995)
John H. Falcon
Bonnie Farber
Viola W. Faust
Jeanne F. Fennell
Mary Fitchett
Berenice Gareau
Gertrude Geller
Rafael Giminez
Anne M. Grand
Mildred A. Griffith
Paul L. Grigaux
Emelyn Grundstrom (1910-1997)
Edith H. Haines
Margaret J. Halden, later a journalist
Leonore C. Hemelt
Leonore Hendershott
Hilda Henderson
Francisco Hernandez
Henley C. Hill
Julianne Holm
Gloria F. Howe
Virginia J. Hudson
Patrick Hurley
Irene Jacobs
-26-
Velma A.S. Jones
Pauline A. King
Marguerite M. Klein
Dorothy Landau
Flora Leach
Leona M. Lenneman (1916-1998)
Sara F. Leslie
Bernard W. Lewis
Frances M. Lucas
Elizabeth Ann Lynch
Katherine D. Lynch
Calmes McComb (1903-1970)
Hazel A. MacDonald
J. Elizabeth McDonald
Mary Virginia McMahon
Madaline D. McMillan
Tomas B. Medina
Frances Moeller
Dorothy H. Morgret (1920-1989)
Marie E. Mullen
Maureen Mulqueen
Jane M. Mundy
Rita C. Murnane
Barbara I. Murray
Christine Nelson
Irene Nielsen
Helen S. Norman
Mona Oddy
Christine S. Orr
Lottie Roark Paez (1911-2003)
Beulah E. Pagel (1922-1996)
Francine T. Payne
Anne R. Perry
Mary Louise Powderly
Margaret Preston
Frances E. Pringle, Division of International Conferences, U.S. Department of State
V. Lenore Rhodes
Evelyn Roig
Edith H. Ronne
Ruth G. Saunders
Jennie F. Savoldelli
Valasta Schulda
William Semple
Frederick W. Sennewald
Nannie Shanahan
Patricia A. Shipe
Mary E. Simon
Vera Sisson
-27-
Alice R. Smith
Vivian M. Smith
Bennie Mae Stevens
Ruth M. Swenson
Marjorie R. Thompson
Mary D. Thompson
Thelma Vinyard
Ruth Wailes
Grace Waite
William T. Ward
Frances West
Hazel B. White
Anna Wilhelm
Mary K. Winslow
Marcella Woerheide
Marguerite G. Wood, U.S. Department of State (circa 1946)
Lillian Wright
Ida R. Zamansky
-28-
Journalists
Dorothy Abelson, Pan American Magazine
Ralph Andevrsky (a misspelling of “Andrevsky”?), U.S. Office of War Information
Sigrid Arne, Washington Bureau, Associated Press
Al Benedict, Paramount Pictures
Clyde R. Blackburn, Washington correspondent, Canadian Press
Walter Bosshard (1892-1975), Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Swiss reporter and photographer
Herbert M. Bratter (1900-1976), Washington correspondent and contributor, Banking
George B. Bryant, Jr., Wall Street Journal
John H. “Jack” Colby (1915-2009), Editor, Littleton Courier, Littleton, New Hampshire
Mario Camargo, Office of the U.S. Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs
Philip Coolidge, Paramount Pictures; later staff news photographer with NBC
Helen Cosgrove, Manchester Union Leader, Manchester, New Hampshire
Philip Clarke, Associated Press; later a syndicated columnist
Arthur W. Crawford, Nation’s Business
John Henshaw Crider (1906-1966), New York Times Washington bureau; later Editor-in-Chief, Boston Herald; winner of 1949 Pulitzer Prize for distinguished editorial writing
(George) Rodney Crowther, Jr., (1896-1986), war correspondent, Baltimore Sun
Samuel Crowther (1880-1947), Hearst Newspapers, husband of Mary Owens Crowther
Mary Jane Owens Crowther (1882-1972), Hearst Newspapers, wife of Samuel Crowther
Austin F. Cross, Ottawa Citizen
Hartwell Daley, WLAW radio, Lawrence, Massachusetts
Alfred Eisenstaedt (1898-1995), staff photographer, Life; renowned photographer and photojournalist
Charles Bryant Engelke (1914-1967), United Press; later Chief, United Press International Bureau in Philadelphia
Imre Ferenczi (1884-1945), Journal de Genève; statistician; former Technical Adviser, International Labour Office
Lawrence W. Fertig (1898-1986), New York World-Telegram; libertarian journalist and former advertising executive
Harold Manchester Fleming (1900-1971), financial correspondent, Christian Science Monitor
Serge Fliegers, correspondent, Reuters
Mrs. F. Fliegers, Novoye Russkoye Slovo (New York Russian daily newspaper)
Paul Foley, U.S. Office of War Information
Abe Fox, Associated Press Photos; affiliation listed in correspondents’ directory as “AP Fotos”
Clement Fuller, BBC
Thomas Furlong, Chicago Tribune
Ludvic (Ludwig) Geiskop, Hearst News of the Day, MGM
Louis Girolami, Fox Movietone News
Manfred Gottfried (1900-1985), Co-Editor-in-Chief, Time; later Chief of Correspondents for Time and Life overseas bureaus
Nicholas P. Gregory, Philadelphia Inquirer
Thomas D. Hagenbuch (1904-1997), Associated Press
Luther A. Harr (1896-1950), Philadelphia Record; Philadelphia Democratic politician and journalist; former Pennsylvania Secretary of Banking and Philadelphia City Treasurer; Wharton School instructor
Charles Heath, Universal News
Manuel A. Hernandez, Instituto de Estudios Económicos y Sociales (Havana)
George Houston, U.S. Office of War Information
-29-
Wellington Jeffers (1879?-1965), Financial Editor, The Globe and Mail (Toronto)
Don Kovacic, Associated Press
William Rodney Kuhns (1897-1972), Managing Editor, Banking; formerly foreign correspondent with United Press and financial features editor at Associated Press
Edwin A. Lahey (1902-1969), reporter, Chicago Daily News; later Washington bureau chief for Knight Newspapers
Mildred Lam, Journal of Commerce
Carl Larsen, cameraman, Fox Movietone News
Earl H. Leaf, Managing Editor, American Edition, Shanghai Evening Post and Mercury
Thurber Lewis, TASS Agency; formerly a contributor to Workers Monthly, an American Communist magazine
Sir Wilmott Harsant Lewis, Washington correspondent, The Times (London)
Philip Lohman, Time
David Chi-hsin Lu, Central News Agency of China; later worked for Washington Post
Louis M. Lyons (1897-1982), Boston Globe; Curator of the Nieman Foundation for Journalism and writer for Christian Science Monitor; later a commentator on WGBH Boston public television
Frank McDermott, The Sunday Times (London)
Donald R. Mann (1907-1991), Office of the U.S. Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs; formerly with The Washington Post (1937-1943); United States Information Agency (1952-1963)
Carl W. McCardle (1904-1972), diplomatic correspondent, Philadelphia Evening Bulletin; later Washington Bureau Chief of Philadelphia Bulletin and Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs (1953-1957)
Leavitt F. Morris, Christian Science Monitor; for 35 years its Travel Editor
Edgar Ansel Mowrer (1892-1977), Press Alliance, Inc.; former Deputy Director, U.S. Office of War Information; 1933 Pulitzer Prize winner as Berlin correspondent of Chicago Daily News; former President, Foreign Press Association; later Editor, Western World magazine and columnist, Manchester Union Leader
Ruth Perry, Hearst Newspapers
William O. Player, Jr., staff correspondent, New York Post
Russell B. Porter, New York Times
Sylvia Field Porter (1913-1991), financial columnist, New York Post (1934-1978); later moved to the New York Daily News and published Sylvia Porter’s Personal Finance newsletter
Ralph Radetski, U.S. Office of War Information
Mary E. Ramsey, Hearst Newspapers
Paul Scott Rankine (1909-1983), Washington Bureau Chief, Reuters; former British civil servant and wartime propagandist; private adviser to British ambassadors to the United States (1956-1970s)
James Rose, electrician, Paramount Pictures
Merryle S. Rukeyser (1897-1988), International News Service; longtime financial and economic journalist; husband of Berenice Rukeyser
Berenice Simon Rukeyser (?-1964), International News Service, wife of Merryle Rukeyser
Robert de Saint-Jean, France Afrique, French journalist and writer; wrote for Paris-Soir, Le Parisien, and Paris Match
J. Schwartz, New York Daily News (circulation)
Richard Sears, cameraman, Universal Pictures
Herbert J. Seligmann (1891-1984), Overseas News Agency; journalist and civil rights activist; wrote for The New Republic, New York Evening Post, New York Globe, and New York Tribune
Stanley H. Silverman (1914-2005), writer, U.S. Office of War Information
Denys H.H. Smith (1899?-1962), Washington bureau chief of London Daily Telegraph (1937-1962)
-30-
T.C. Tang, New York Bureau Chief, Central News Agency of China; later United Nations correspondent, Central News Agency of China (1945-1971)
Edward P. Tastrom (1897-1976), Assistant Financial Editor of The Journal of Commerce
H[ugh] Hessell Tiltman (1897-1976), London Sketch; British writer and journalist
Thomas M. Travers, Boston Herald Traveler (circulation)
Lester Troob (1912-2008), Recording Supervisor, News Division, U.S. Office of War Information; later President of Young People’s Records
Tom Twitty, Sr., war correspondent, New York Herald Tribune; later White House correspondent and Assistant National News Editor, New York Herald Tribune
Winifred “Freda” Utley (1898-1978), Norte Magazine; British author and journalist; onetime Communist who became an ardent anti-Communist
Cornelius “Neil” Vanderbilt IV (1898-1974), New York Post; socialite and journalist
(Abraham) Arnold Vas Dias (1890-1966), Aneta News Agency; later United Nations correspondent for Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant
André Visson, Reader’s Digest; syndicated columnist for New York Herald Tribune and Washington Post
Robert Waithman, American correspondent, News Chronicle (London)
Elmer C. Walzer (1894-1974), financial journalist, United Press
Arthur Webb, foreign correspondent, Daily Herald (London)
U.V. Wilcox (1886?-1965), Washington correspondent, American Banker, later Publisher, Washington Banktrends
Kenneth R. Wilson (1903?-1952), Ottawa Editor, Financial Post (Toronto)
Franz B. Wolf, affiliation listed in correspondents’ directory as “Research Institute”; contributor, “Economy in War Time” in War in the Twentieth Century
George Woodruff, photographer, International News Service Photos (INS Fotos)
Cecelia G. Shore Wyckoff, (1926-1966), Publisher, The Magazine of Wall Street
Jeff Wylie, photographer, Life
Journalists could be protective of their privileged admission to the Bretton Woods conference. For example, at a press conference opened by Treasury Secretary Morgenthau, a newsman noted the unauthorized presence of David Hinshaw, vice president of the Institute of Public Relations. Hinshaw claimed that he had been vacationing at a nearby resort, that he had merely spoken with press and Congressional contacts earlier that day, and that he “was never so humiliated in my life.” Under pressure he left the press conference. Later the publicist admitted that his employer had conducted economic studies for American Smelting and Refining. He was unclear as to whether the studies pertained to gold.5
5 “Publicity Man Causes Conference Flurry; Hinshaw Departs After Protest by Press,” Associated Press report, New York Times, July 9, 1944, p. 23.
-31-
Other
Allison Morris, affiliation not given but probably Secretariat
J. Burke Knapp, U.S. Department of State; was vacationing nearby and sneaked into a few meetings6
Wallace S. Webb (1897-1988), Scout Commissioner, Daniel Webster Council, New Hampshire
Cub Scouts helped distribute conference materials and move microphones from speaker to speaker.
The Center for Financial Stability (CFS) is a private, nonprofit institution focusing on global finance and markets. Its research is nonpartisan. This publication reflects the judgments and recommendations of the author(s). They do not necessarily represent the views of members of the Advisory Board or Trustees, whose involvement in no way should be interpreted as an endorsement of the report by either themselves or the organizations with which they are affiliated.
6 Harry S. Truman Library and Museum, “Oral History Interview with J. Burke Knapp,” July 24 and 30, 1975, pp. 37-39, http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/knappjb.htm, viewed May 28, 2014.

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